China’s political system can be referred to as the political structure, fundamental laws, regulations and practices that are implemented in the country ad regulate the relationships between the state and the society in the People’s Republic of China. The Communist party of China is the country’s sole political party in power. The Communist party of China founded the People’s Republic of China. In this particular article, we will get deeper into the Chinese political hierarchy.
The system of people’s congress is the fundamental political system of China. The National People’s Congress (NPC) is established through the democratic elections. All the state administrative and judicial organs are created by the people’s congress.
National People’s Congress (NPC)
The National People’s Congress is composed of deputies elected from the provinces, municipalities and the autonomous regions, which are directly under the Central Government. The deputies are organized into delegations as per the units, from where they are elected. Each delegation is headed by a chairman and a vice chairman.
The various functions of NPC are:
- Supervising the enforcement of the Constitution.
- Enacting and amending basic laws governing civil affairs and criminal offenses.
- Electing the President and Vice President of the People’s Republic of China.
- Electing the President of the Supreme People’s court.
- Approving the various plans for social and economic development of the nation.
- Approving the establishment of autonomous regions, municipalities and provinces under the Central government.
The Standing Committee of the NPC
The Standing Committee of the NPC is a permanent part of the party and can be denoted as the second rank holder in the Chinese political hierarchy. When NPC is not in session, the Standing Committee has all the rights to perform the functions performed by the party. The Standing Committee is composed of the Chairman, Vice Chairman, Secretary General and other members.
The various functions of the Standing Committee are:
- Amending the laws enacted by NPC, in compliance with the basic principles of laws.
- Supervising the work of the State Council, Supreme People’s Court and the Central Military Commission.
- Appointing and removing the Vice Presidents and Judges of the Supreme people’s Court, upon recommendation by the President.
- Deciding on the choice of ministers in charge of the various ministries and commissions, when NPC is not in session.
Local People’s Congress
The People’s congresses are established in the provinces, municipalities and the autonomous regions, directly under the Central Government.
The various functions of the Local People’s Congress are as follows:
- Ensuring the correct implementation of the Constitutional laws in the specific administrative areas.
- Developing and implementing plans for the economic and cultural development of the province and for the development of public services.
- Recalling the governors, deputy governors, mayors and deputy mayors at their respective levels.
Deputies to the People’s Congress
This is the last rank holder in the Chinese political hierarchy. The deputies are elected by the People’s congresses of the provinces and the autonomic regions.
When NPC is in session, the rights of deputies include:
- Right to raise bills for questioning.
- Right to vote in election and decide on appointment.
- Right to draft proposals for bills.
- Right to draft suggestions.