Bangladesh Political Hierarchy

Bangladesh is an Asian country which shares its border with India and follows a democratic political rule and structure. In this country, the framework of parliamentary representative democratic republic takes place wherein the Prime Minister is the head of the government and there is a multi-party system.

The powers are divided into three branches which are the executive branch, legislative branch and the judiciary.  The constitutional rights are exerted in this country and are given utmost importance. To understand the hierarchical structure of Bangladesh as far as politics is concerned, you can read the following given information.

bangladesh political hierarchy

The Executive Branch

The executive branch of Bangladesh politics is the topmost branch in the hierarchical structure and is also the one with the maximum duties and responsibilities.  This branch is composed of the most important political leaders of the country and all the main decisions and powers lie within it. The Prime Minister is the head of the government and the President has a ceremonial role to put it simply.  The Prime Minister is also the leader the cabinet which is his council of ministers. The following given structure will explain more about the same.

  • The Prime Minister-the head of government and the chief executive.
  • The President-appoints the cabinet and has a ceremonial role. Also appoints the judiciary
  • The Cabinet-headed by the Prime Minister.
  • The Cabinet Ministers

The Legislature

Bangladesh is a unicarmel government with the parliament being the legislative branch which is responsible for making all the rules and laws for the citizens to follow.  The parliament consists of 300 members which are occupied by members who are directly elected from the various geographical constituencies.  45 seats are reserved for women who are elected by the MPs.


The Judiciary in Bangladesh is separated from the other two branches is a branch which is responsible for enforcing the laws formed by the legislature. The judiciary consists of the Supreme Court as the apex court.

  • The Supreme court
  • The appellate courts
  • High court
  • Subordinate courts-civil courts, criminal courts, courts of session, courts of magistrate, special courts.

Key Ministers

  • Agricultural minister
  • Commerce minister
  • Education minister
  • Civil aviation and tourism minister
  • Communications minister
  • Finance minister
  • Fisheries and livestock minister
  • Planning minister
  • Water resources minister
  • Textiles and jute minister
  • Local government and rural development minister
  • Industries minister
  • Food minister
  • Law, justice and parliamentary affairs minister
  • Shipping and inland water transport minister
  • Central bank governor